CURRICULUM VITAE
Chris Tong, Ph.D.


One of the perhaps unusual aspects of the way I've chosen to organize this vitae is that I have not (artificially) compartmentalized the academic, business, and spiritual vitae. Everything is interleaved, just as in real life.

brief biography

 
Dr. Chris Tong
Chris Tong



PERSONAL INFORMATION

9730 Soda Bay Rd. #8 Suite #5034
Kelseyville, CA 95451-9636
email: tong@christong.com

birth date: 6/6/57
citizenship: USA
marital status: married to Mary Waltrich Tong since July, 1997.

Chris Tong and Mary Waltrich Tong


EDUCATION

1989 Formally began practicing the Spiritual Way of Adidam.
   
REAL God IS The Indivisible Oneness Of Unbroken LightThe ONLY Complete Way To Realize The Unbroken Light Of REAL GodThe Seven Stages Of Life
   
1988 

Ph.D., computer science, Stanford University. Dissertation: Knowledge-Based Circuit Design (435 pages). Dissertation committee: Prof. Bruce Buchanan (Chair), Prof. Terry Winograd, Dr. Mark Stefik, and Dr. Harold Brown.

        
 
Stanford University
 Bruce Buchanan Terry Winograd 
  
Stanford University
 
Bruce Buchanan
 
Terry Winograd
 
   
1986-87 Bioenergetic therapy with Leslie Lowen and Alexander Lowen (founders of the field of bioenergetics).
   
1978 

B.A., computer science (summa cum laude), Columbia University.
Advisor: Prof. Jonathan Gross

 Columbia University 
Jonathan Gross
 
Columbia University
 
Jonathan Gross
   
1974-75

Spent freshman year at Princeton University.

 Princeton University
 
Princeton University
   
1974 Graduated from River Dell High School, Oradell, New Jersey. Yearbook entry read (in part): "Enjoys proving the existence of God in 5 logical steps."
   
1967-1969

Altar boy with the Catholic Church.

   
before 1969

Educated at home from an early age, by parents who were both mathematics professors.

 Chris with a calculus book
 
Chris with a calculus book


PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE

2000 - present

Author of the 25-book The Practical Spirituality Series.

The Practical Spirituality Series

The intention of this series is to cover all the basic questions of spiritual seekers, including:

  • Why do we suffer? What can we do to be happy? Is it possible to be perfectly happy? What, in spiritual terms, is the root of our un-happiness, from moment to moment? If change of circumstances (wealth; fame; a desired career; a loving partner, children, and friends; etc.) doesnt guarantee happiness (and this is clear from the records of the wealthy, the famous, the successful, and even the loved), then what does? What spiritual means are available for restoring us to happiness?

  • What can we do about the fact of our own mortality? What does happen after we die? In what way -- precisely -- does how we live impact what happens to us after we die? What is the best way to live in order to serve tangible spiritual growth, as well as our destiny after death?

  • Is it possible to go beyond just talk of (and belief in) God and a Greater Reality, and actually have direct experience of that Greater Reality? Does God exist? Why are we not aware of God right now? How do we actually find God for real? How can we stay in communion with the Divine Being under any circumstance? What is God really like? How can we know God directly?

  • What is the nature of the Greater Reality? How do the various teachings and Realizations of shamans, saints, yogis, and Spiritual Masters relate to each other and to the actual nature of Reality? Is it actually true that all paths to God are equal? Or are there real differences among religions and Spiritual paths that are important for us to know about in order to find the most beneficial Spiritual means? What is the greatest Spiritual potential and destiny we can realize, and what means is available for realizing it? Why aren't such Spiritual means more generally known or more widely practiced?
   
1999 - present

Director, The Institute for Real God.

The Institute for Real God

The Institute for Real God was created for the purpose of making genuine spirituality and spiritual practice accessible to as many people as possible. It offers a genuine alternative to the most familiar options of our time: materialism, belief-based religion, and "new age" spirituality. In particular, The Institute for Real God:

  • provides education about the insufficiency of non-spiritual means for achieving true and lasting happiness for individuals; and about the process of tangibly connecting to the Divine Being -- how it has been done traditionally, and how it best can be done now.

  • provides education about the insufficiency of non-spiritual means (e.g., political, social, or military), in themselves, for creating a true and lasting world peace or world order; and education about how to draw the Divine Power into this otherwise mad world, by converting every aspect of one's own life.
   
1994 - present

President, Enchanted Websites and Host Your Site

Enchanted Websites

In 1994, Dr. Tong began applying his twenty years of experience on the Internet to the design and marketing of websites. This led him to create Enchanted Websites, Dr. Tong has led a small staff of friendly professionals in designing, upgrading, and marketing over seventy commercial and not-for-profit websites, as well as providing state-of-the-art web hosting and domain name services for hundreds of domain names and websites via Host Your Site, the web hosting branch of Enchanted Websites, and Register Your Domain Name, the domain name services branch of Enchanted Websites.

Host Your Site Register Your Domain Name


Some of these sites have won recognition for the quality of their design (including an excellent review from the #1 newstand web magazine, "The Web", and a feature on MSNBC's nationally broadcast program, "The Site"). Others have had traffic to their site increased by more than tenfold through Enchanted Websites' state-of-the-art online marketing techniques.

Enchanted Websites has provided websites for organizations as well-known and diverse as:

  • Kaiser Permanente, the #1 non-profit HMO in the United States;
  • Adrien Arpel (stock market ticker symbol: ADPL), one of the most recognized and respected names in skin care in the world;
  • Barbara's Bakery, the #1 manufacturer of natural cold cereals in the United States;
  • Name That Toon, the #1 publisher of advertising animation art in the world;
  • Color Me Beautiful, the internationally acclaimed cosmetic line (and bestselling book) that revolutionized the world of color cosmetics by introducing the concept of choosing color by season;
  • Villas International, the 2nd oldest international vacation rental company in the United States;
  • Bright Lights Candle Company, the 3rd best-selling candle manufacturer in the Northeastern United States;
  • Ed Kowalczyk, the lead singer of the rock band Live, whose recent album, Secret Samadhi, debuted at the #1 position on the Billboard charts, and who was featured at the end of the recent box office hit, The Mummy Returns, performing the theme song.
  • Ray Lynch, the 3-time Billboard Award winner, and platinum album composer of the 1st New Age gold album, Deep Breakfast;
  • Christine Feehan, author of the "Dark" series romance novels,which have made both The New York Times and USA Today bestseller lists
  • The Paperweight Collectors Association, the #1 not-for-profit organization in the world for paperweight collectors;
  • Gale Hayman Beverly Hills, whose products are formulated by Gale Hayman, longtime beauty consultant to celebrities that have included Princess Grace and Barbra Streisand;
  • Iman Cosmetics and Skincare, whose products are formulated by supermodel, Iman, and are among the best-recognized among women of color.

Enchanted Websites has also been recognized by its peers. The company is regularly contracted by other web companies, including Meridian West, The Mews Group, Computer Adept, Natural Net Marketing, Natural Health Links, and Fred Roh Marketing Solutions. It is one of only two companies recommended by Americart, one of the world's leading e-commerce service providers. Enchanted Websites is also a member of the International Webmasters Association.

   
1992

Visiting researcher, Intelligent Engineering Systems Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

 Massachusetts Institute of Technology
 
MIT (photo by Liang-Wu Cai)
   
1989

Visiting scientist, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY (Dr. Se June Hong, manager)

 
Se June Hong
 IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center
 
Se June Hong
 
IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center
   
1986-89Consultant, Siemens Research and Technology Laboratories, Princeton, NJ.
   
1984-94 

Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science, and Associate Member of the Graduate Faculty, Rutgers University.

 
Hill Center, Rutgers University
 
Hill Center, Rutgers University
   
1982-84

Consultant, Xerox PARC (Palo Alto Research Center), Knowledge Systems Area (with Dr. Lynn Conway and Dr. Mark Stefik).

 
Lynn Conway
 
Mark Stefik
 
Lynn Conway
 
Mark Stefik
   
  

Consultant, Knowledge Systems Laboratory (Prof. Ed Feigenbaum, Prof. Bruce Buchanan, directors) of the Stanford University Computer Science Department.

   
1977-80

Summer Research Associate, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center (Mathematical Sciences Dept. with Dr. Robert Brayton)



SELECTED HONORS

2002

Even though Chris is not registered with any particular political party, he was honored by the National Republican Congressional Committee (NRCC) when it selected him for its 2002 National Leadership Award. At the same time, he was pleased to accept the NRCC's appointment as the Special Advisor to the Chairman on the NRCC's Business Advisory Council.

Members of the Business Advisory Council are selected after an exhaustive search of key business leaders throughout the United States. Appointments and awards are based on the following criteria:

  • Successful entrepreneurial skills
  • Commitment to conservative business principles
  • Leadership skills in business management
  • Communication skills for proactively conveying ideas to Congressional leaders
  • Cooperative attitude and ability to generate positive working relationships

Members of the Business Advisory Council provide input to the NRCC (and thereby Congress altogether) on the needs of small businesses, particularly giving input on tax and economic issues. If you are associated with a small business in California and have useful input of this sort, please drop Chris a line. He welcomes this opportunity to influence policy-making, and is very interested in hearing from, and accurately communicating the needs of, the California small business community.

 
National Leadership Award
   
1999

The series, "Artificial Intelligence in Engineering Design" (Chris Tong and Ram Duvurru Sriram, editors) was named to the Omega 23 list of "Highly Recommended Resources in Artificial Intelligence".

 
Ram Duvurru Sriram
 
Ram Duvurru Sriram
   
1998Named to National Register's Who's Who in Executives and Professionals (1998-99).
   
1990Winner of the 1990 CSGSS Award for Excellence in Teaching, Rutgers University Computer Science Department.
   
1987Elected to the Phi Tau Phi Scholastic Honor Society of America, East America Chapter, "for many contributions in promoting knowledge in Philosophy, Technology, or Physiology."
1983

Awarded a fellowship from NL Industries, for being the outstanding graduate student of the year in the Knowledge Systems Laboratory of the Stanford University Computer Science Dept. The criterion used for selection by Prof. Bruce Buchanan and Prof. Ed Feigenbaum was "the overall high quality of research, personal initiative, and potential as a young scientist."

 
Ed Feigenbaum
 
Ed Feigenbaum
   
1978  NSF (National Science Foundation) Graduate Fellow (1978-81).
   
  Selected for Phi Beta Kappa, Columbia University.
 

Phi Beta Kappa key

  Selected for Upsilon Phi Epsilon (the Computer Honor Society of the Association for Computing Machinery), Columbia University
  As the narrator of The Columbia Varsity Show, appeared on New York's Channel 5 News, and in an interview published in The Village Voice.

   
  

"The Varsity Show, founded in 1894, is one of the oldest traditions at Columbia University, and certainly its oldest performing arts tradition. The long list of Varsity Show alumni include such distinguished names such as Richard Rodgers '23, Oscar Hammerstein '16, and Lorenz Hart '18."

from the Columbia Varsity Show website

"The Varsity Show does not censor itself for reasons of religion, politics, race, creed, or taste, and it will not allow anyone else to do so either. If you're not offended, we're not doing our job."

from the Varsity Show Creed

 
The Columbia Varsity Show
   
1975Awarded the Van Amringe Mathematical Prize for the "best freshman or sophomore mathematics student", by the Department of Mathematics, Columbia University.
1974

Received honorable mentions in the Westinghouse Science Talent Search, now known as the Intel Science Talent Search (high school senior).

"The Science Talent Search is the nations oldest and most highly-regarded science competition. The STS has identified young scientific talent with remarkable precision: alumni include five Nobel Laureates, ten MacArthur Foundation Fellows, and two Fields Medalists."

from the Intel Science Talent Search website

   
  

Co-author (with Thomas Gass) of, and actor in, "Number 33", a play about a man searching for happiness, selected as the performance for showcasing student talent at the National Honor Society induction ceremony (high school senior).

 
Scene from "Number 33"
 
scene from "Number 33"
1973Awarded a Grant-In-Aid by the State of New Jersey for proposed new research on the origins of life (high school junior).
1968Won third place in New England, in "Youth Speaks" public speaking competition (6th grade).


SELECTED PUBLICATIONS

2008   Chris Tong, Inbox, Time Magazine, May 1, 2008.
     
2006  

Chris Tong, "The Offering of Perfect Happiness: The Divine Incarnation, Life, and Work of Avatar Adi Da Samraj." In Maariv, feature story, New Age/Spirituality section, July 31, 2006. (Maariv is the second largest mass-circulation newspaper in Israel. Because she deemed the article a "hit", the editor continued to feature the article on the home page of the New Age/Spirituality section through August 8, 2006.)

     
2001   Chris Tong, Letters, Time Magazine, Dec. 31, 2001.
     
   

Chris Tong, Appreciating the DIFFERENCES Among Religions, Paths, and Revelations, Part 3: The Sacred Earth: Realization of the Magical, Psycho-Physical Dimensions. The Practical Spirituality Press, May, 2001 (145 pages).

     
   

Chris Tong, Appreciating the DIFFERENCES Among Religions, Paths, and Revelations, Part 2: Three Views of Reality and Human Potential. The Practical Spirituality Press, February, 2001 (108 pages).

Three Views of Reality and Human Potential

     
2000   Chris Tong, Appreciating the DIFFERENCES Among Religions, Paths, and Revelations, Part 1: Beyond Spiritual Correctness. The Practical Spirituality Press, December, 2000 (54 pages).
   
    Chris Tong, Transcending Life and Death in God, Part 3: You CAN Take It With You. The Practical Spirituality Press, October, 2000 (75 pages).
   
    Chris Tong, Transcending Life and Death in God, Part 2: You WILL Take It With You. The Practical Spirituality Press, August, 2000 (54 pages).
   
    Chris Tong, Transcending Life and Death in God, Part 1: You CAN'T Take It With You. The Practical Spirituality Press, July, 2000 (42 pages).
   
    Chris Tong, Being Real, Part 2: Habits of Highly Spiritual People. The Practical Spirituality Press, June, 2000 (69 pages).
   
    Chris Tong, Being Real, Part 1: Secrets of Human Transformation. The Practical Spirituality Press, May, 2000 (54 pages).
   
    Chris Tong, Believing in God vs. Practicing the Revelation of God: The self-Transcending Realization of the Divine Being. The Practical Spirituality Press, April, 2000 (68 pages).
     
1997   Chris Tong, Eliminating Search in Design via Learning. Chapter in Marc Green, Knowledge-Aided Design. Academic Press, 1997.
   
1993 Chris Tong and Andrew Gomory, A Knowledge-Based Computer Environment for the Conceptual Design of Small Electromechanical Appliances. IEEE Computer 26(1), pp. 69-71 (1993). A knowledge-based computer environment that supports the concurrent engineering of small electromechanical appliances such as kitchen appliances and lighting is described. The environment integrates and provides active assistance for the following engineering activities: specification acquisition, conceptual design and redesign, and qualitative simulation. The design environment is examined by reviewing the steps in a redesign sequence that transforms a manual juicer into an electric juicer.
 
1992 Artificial Intelligence in Engineering Design, Vol. IIIChris Tong and Ram Duvvuru Sriram (editors), Artificial Intelligence in Engineering Design, Vol. III: Knowledge Acquisition, Commercial Systems, and Integrated Environments. Academic Press, 1992. 388 pages.

Artificial Intelligence in Engineering Design is a three volume edited collection of key papers from the field of artificial intelligence and design, aimed at providing a state-of-the-art description of the field, and focusing on how ideas and methods from artifical intelligence can help engineers in the design of physical artifacts and processes. The book surveys a wide variety of applications in the areas of civil, mechanical, chemical, VLSI, electrical, and computer engineering. The contributors are from leading academic computer-aided design centers as well as from industry.
   
    Artificial Intelligence in Engineering Design, Vol. IIChris Tong and Ram Duvvuru Sriram (editors), Artificial Intelligence in Engineering Design, Vol. II: Models of Innovative Design, Reasoning about Physical Systems, and Reasoning about Geometry. Academic Press, 1992. 524 pages.

Artificial Intelligence in Engineering Design is a three volume edited collection of key papers from the field of artificial intelligence and design, aimed at providing a state-of-the-art description of the field, and focusing on how ideas and methods from artifical intelligence can help engineers in the design of physical artifacts and processes. The book surveys a wide variety of applications in the areas of civil, mechanical, chemical, VLSI, electrical, and computer engineering. The contributors are from leading academic computer-aided design centers as well as from industry.
   
    Artificial Intelligence in Engineering Design, Vol. IChris Tong and Ram Duvvuru Sriram (editors), Artificial Intelligence in Engineering Design, Vol. I: Design Representation and Models of Routine Design. Academic Press, 1992. 473 pages.

Artificial Intelligence in Engineering Design is a three volume edited collection of key papers from the field of artificial intelligence and design, aimed at providing a state-of-the-art description of the field, and focusing on how ideas and methods from artifical intelligence can help engineers in the design of physical artifacts and processes. The book surveys a wide variety of applications in the areas of civil, mechanical, chemical, VLSI, electrical, and computer engineering. The contributors are from leading academic computer-aided design centers as well as from industry.
   
    Chris Tong and Ram Duvvuru Sriram. Introduction. In Artificial Intelligence in Engineering Design. Volume I, chapter 1, pp. 1-53. Academic Press, 1992. Overview of the field that was widely cited (e.g., [1], [2], [3] )
Artificial Intelligence in Engineering Design is a three volume edited collection of key papers from the field of artificial intelligence and design, aimed at providing a state-of-the-art description of the field, and focusing on how ideas and methods from artifical intelligence can help engineers in the design of physical artifacts and processes. The book surveys a wide variety of applications in the areas of civil, mechanical, chemical, VLSI, electrical, and computer engineering. The contributors are from leading academic computer-aided design centers as well as from industry.
   
    Chris Tong, "Using Exploratory Design to Cope with Design Complexity". In Chris Tong and Ram Duvvuru Sriram, Artificial Intelligence in Engineering Design, Vol. II: Models of Innovative Design, Reasoning about Physical Systems, and Reasoning about Geometry. Academic Press, 1992.
   
    Chris Tong, Wes Braudaway, Sunil Mohan, and Kerstin Voigt, Reformulating Constraints for Compilability and Efficiency. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Change of Representation and Problem Reformulation, Pacific Grove, CA, April, 1992.

KBSDE is a knowledge compiler that uses a classification-based approach to map solution constraints in a task specification onto particular search algorithm components that will be responsible for satisfying those constraints (e.g., local constraints are incorporated in generators; global constraints are incorporated in either testers or hillclimbing patchers). Associated with each type of search algorithm component is a subcompiler that specializes in mapping constraints into components of that type. Each of these subcompilers in turn uses a classification-based approach, matching a constraint passed to it against one of several schemas, and applying a compilation technique associated with that schema. While much progress has occurred in our research since we first laid out our classification-based approach (Ton91), we focus in this paper on our reformulation research. Two important reformulation issues that arise out of the choice of a schema-based approach are: (1) compilability-- Can a constraint that does not directly match any of a particular subcompiler's schemas be reformulated into one that does? and (2) Efficiency-- If the efficiency of the compiled search algorithm depends on the compiler's performance, and the compiler's performance depends on the form in which the constraint was expressed, can we find forms for constraints which compile better, or reformulate constraints whose forms can be recognized as ones that compile poorly? In this paper, we describe a set of techniques we are developing for partially addressing these issues.
     
1991

Ashok Goel, Tom Bylander, Balakrishnan Chandrasekaran, Tom Dietterich, Richard Keller, and Chris Tong. "Knowledge Compilation: A Symposium". IEEE Expert [now known as IEEE Intelligent Systems], 6(2):71-93, April 1991. article

 
Rich Keller
 
Balakrishnan Chandrasekaran
 
Tom Bylander
   
 
Rich Keller
 
Chandra
 
Tom Bylander
   
     
    Chris Tong, The Nature and Significance of Knowledge Compilation. IEEE Expert [now known as IEEE Intelligent Systems], 6(2), April 1991.

Knowledge compilation is characterized in terms of a three-level hierarchy, consisting of the knowledge, function, and program levels. The nature of knowledge compilation is explicated by contrasting it with the related fields of conventional compilation, automatic programming, logic programming, software engineering, shell instantiation, machine learning, and problem solving. The reasons why knowledge compilation is important are discussed, and knowledge compilation models are examined. The dimensions, goals, and methodologies of knowledge compilation are discussed.
 
   

Chris Tong. A Divide-and-Conquer Approach to Knowledge Compilation. Chapter 11 of Michael Lowry and Robert D. McCartney, editors, Automating Software Design. AAAI Press, 1991.

 
Robert McCartney
 
Robert McCartney
     
    Chris Tong and Anne Henderson, Sri Da Avabhasa's Wisdom on the Perennial Goal of True Religion and the Pseudo-Religion of Science. The Bright Magazine, Vol. 1, No. 3, Oct / Nov 1991.
     
    Chun W. Liew, Louis S. Steinberg, and Chris Tong. Use of Feedback to Control Redesign. IntCAD (Working Conference on Intelligent Computer Aided Design), 1991, pp. 27-53.
     
1990

Chris Tong, "Knowledge-Based Design as an Engineering Science: the Rutgers AI / Design Project" (invited paper). Applications of AI in Engineering V, Vol. 1: Design, John Gero (Ed.), Proc. 5th Int. Conf. on Appl. of AI in Eng., Boston, MA, Computational Mechanics Publications & Springer-Verlag, 1990, pp. 297-319.

 
John Gero
 
John Gero
 
Chris Tong (guest editor), Guest Editor's Introduction: The 1990 Conference on AI Applications, IEEE Expert [now known as IEEE Intelligent Systems], Feb. 1991. article
   
1989 Chris Tong and Phil Franklin, Tuning a Knowledge Base of Refinement Rules To Create Good Circuit Designs. IJCAI 1989 (International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence), Detroit, August 1989. pp. 1439-1445. article

The efficiency and optimality of a divide-and-conquer approach to design depends upon the associated hierarchy of implementation goals having sibling subgoals that interact only weakly or not at all. Unfortunately, in many domains the only easily acquirable design refinement knowledge leads to the formation of goal hierarchies that violate this assumption. In this paper, we describe a learning method that incrementally transforms a search-based design system that spends much of its time recovering from the implicit (and mistaken) assumption that subproblems do not interact, into a compiler-like system that decomposes the original design problem into truly non-interacting subproblems. The improved system finds locally optimal solutions to its subproblems, which are composed into globally optimal solutions. By analyzing dependencies, the learning method re-parses a poor design decomposition into one with no subproblem interactions; it then generalises from the resulting decomposition, adding new refinement rules to the knowledge base. We have implemented a design system called CPS that solves design problems of implementing boolean expressions as gate-level circuits. We have also implemented a learning program called SCALE that incrementally transforms CPS into an optimizing compiler.
   
    Kerstin Voigt and Chris Tong, Automating the Construction of Patchers That Satisfy Global Constraints. IJCAI 1989 (International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence), Detroit, August 1989. pp. 1446-1452. article

Generate-and-test algorithms to solve constraint satisfaction problems are often inefficient , but can be constructed fairly easily by knowledge compilation techniques that convert declarative problem knowledge and domain knowledge i n t o a procedural format [Liew and Tong, 1987]. Current research is focusing on methods to improve the efficiency of generate-and-test algorithms by completely i n corporating local constraints i n t o generators of parts of composite solutions [Braudaway, 1988]. More global constraints on multiple parts cannot necessarily be incorporated into the part generators. Their satisfaction must be ensured in a different way. We describe an (unimplemented) method for transforming a generate-and-test algorithm i n to a generate-test-and-patch algorithm that efficiently hillclimbs toward a solution satisfyi ng a particular global constraint. Our method is based on constructing an evaluation function f r om the global constraint, that reflects the "degree" to which the constraint has been satisfied. Some of the steps in this method rely on categorizing the global constraint into a generic class. In this paper, the constraint classes on which we focus are quota-meeting and covering constraints. We illustrate the general approach by applying it to a simple generate-and-test algorithm for house floorplanning. We provide empirical results that corroborate our claim that the efficiency of the algorithm has been significantly improved.
   
    Wes Braudaway and Chris Tong: Automated Synthesis of Constrained Generators. IJCAI 1989 (International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence), Detroit, August 1989. pp. 583-589. article

Knowledge compilation is an emerging research area that focuses on "compiling" a problem solver's inefficient, explicit knowledge representation into more efficient, implicit forms. This paper presents a technique that transforms a declarative problem description (specifying the problem but not how to solve it) into a reasonably efficient, generate-and-test problem solver. Our technique performs constraint incorporation, modifying the parameter generators so they only generate values that satisfy the problem constraints. Successful constraint incorporation depends upon choosing the right solution representation (i.e., the set of parameters). Having expressed a constraint in terms of a particular set of parameters, incorporation fails if the constraint is not factorable into constraints on the individual parameter generators. RICK, a Refinement-based constraint Incorporator for Compiling Knowledge, is a prototype program that compiles a problem specification into a problem solver using least commitment, topdown refinement to achieve constraint incorporation. RICK refines an abstract solution representation to avoid premature commitment to representations that hinder constraint incorporation. RICK is able to incorporate local constraints that constrain relatively small portions of the entire solution. We have tested these ideas by having RICK automatically construct a house floor planning problem solver.
   
    Chris Tong. Toward Knowledge Compilation as a Classification Process. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Automating Software Design. IJCAI 1989 (International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence), Detroit, August 1989.
     
    Chris Tong, Compile-Time and Run-Time Processing of Design Constraints. Proceedings of the First Workshop on Constraint Processing, IJCAI 1989 (International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence), Detroit, August 1989.
   
    Sunil Mohan and Chris Tong, Automatic Construction of a Hierarchical Generate-and-Test Algorithm. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Workshop on Machine Learning, Ithaca, NY, July, 1989.
     
    Chris Tong and Phil Franklin, Toward Automated Rational Reconstruction: A Case Study. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Workshop on Machine Learning, Ithaca, NY, July, 1989.
     
1988 Chris Tong, Knowledge-Based Circuit Design. Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford University (435 pages).
     
    Louis Steinberg and Chris Tong, Artificial Intelligence and Design. AAAI Press, 1988. Paperback, 80 pages. ISBN: 0929280199.
   
    Chris Tong, Making Routine Design Possible and Robust: Research Directions. Proceedings of the 1988 Workshop on Research Directions for AI in Design, University of Sydney, Australia.
   
1987 Chris Tong, Toward an Engineering Science of Knowledge-Based Design. The International Journal for Artificial Intelligence in Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 3, July, 1987.

The author presents a framework for organizing, evaluating, and developing knowledge-based models of the design process. He argues the evaluation of a design process model can be carried out from three usefully distinguished perspectives: the knowledge it embodies; the functionality of the design process, from a problem-solving viewpoint; and the implementation of the design process as an actual program. This paper focuses on the first two perspectives. He systematically introduces a set of basic functional components, and shows how existing approaches or systems can be viewed as configurations of these components, in which domain knowledge has been incorporated. He completes his presentation by analysing a more complex knowledge-based system (DONTE) that designs circuits.
     
    Chris Tong, Goal-directed planning of the design process. Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Applications (CAIA), pp. 284--289, 1987.
     
1986  

Chris Tong, On compiling explainable models of a design domain. In Tom Mitchell, Jaime Carbonell, and Ryszard Michalski (editors), Machine Learning: A Guide to Current Research. Kluwer, 1986. pp. 343-347.

 
Ryszard Michalski
 
Ryszard Michalski
   
   

Chris Tong. KBSDE: An Environment For Developing Knowledge-Based Design Tools. In Tom Dietterich, editor, Proceedings of the Workshop on Knowledge Compilation, pp. 127-138, Oregon State Univ., September 1986.

 
Tom Dietterich
 
Tom Dietterich
     
1985   Chris Tong, Experiments in the Knowledge-Based Design of Digital Systems. In SIGART Newsletter (Special Interest Group on Artificial Intelligence), July, 1985, pp. 64-66.
   
1984   Chris Tong, "A framework for circuit design", in Digest of Papers, COMPCON84 (IEEE Computer Science Conference). Conference theme: Technological Leverage -- The Driving Technologies. San Francisco, CA, Spring, 1984. pp. 123-129.
     
1983   Harold Brown, Chris Tong, and Gordon Foyster, "Palladio: An Exploratory Environment for Circuit Design", IEEE Computer, 16:12, December 1983. pp. 41-56. (widely cited paper, e.g. [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7])
   
1982

Mark Stefik, Daniel Bobrow, Alan Bell, Harold Brown, Lynn Conway, and Chris Tong, "The partitioning of concerns in digital system design", Proceedings of the Conference on Advanced Research in VLSI, MIT, Artech House, January 1982. (Also Xerox report VLSI-81-3, pp. 43-52, December 1981.) [the paper: pdf file]

 
Danny Bobrow
  Alan Bell
 
Danny Bobrow
 
Alan Bell
   
1981   Robert Brayton and Chris Tong, Constructive Stability of Dynamical Systems (invited paper). IEEE Conference on Decision and Control Proceedings, December 1981.

A set A of nxn complex matrices is stable if for every neighborhood of the origin U¿Cn there exists another neighborhood of the origin V, such that for each M¿A' (the set of finite products of matrices in A), MV¿U. Matrix and Liapunov stability are related.
   
1980   Robert Brayton and Chris Tong, Some Results on the Nonlinear Worst-Case Problem, Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, pp. 1142, April 1980.
   
    Robert Brayton and Chris Tong, Constructive Stability and Asymptotic Stability of Dynamical Systems: A Constructive Approach. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems, November, 1980.
   
1979  

Robert Brayton and Chris Tong, Stability of Dynamical Systems: A Constructive Approach. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems, April 1979. (widely cited paper, e.g., [1], [2], [3] )

 
Bob Brayton
 
Bob Brayton

A set A of nXn complex matrices is stable if for every neighborhood of the origin U subset C^{n}, there exists another neighborhood of the origin V, such that for each M in A' (the set of finite products of matrices in A), MV subset U. Matrix and Liapunov stability are related. Theorem: A set of matrices A is stable if and only if there exists a norm,|cdot |, such that for all M in A, and allz in C^{n},|Mz| < |z|. The norm is a Liapunov function for the set A. It need not be smooth; using smooth norms to prove stability can be inadequate. A novel central result is a constructive algorithm which can determine the stability of A based on the following. Theorem:A,={M0,Mj,. .,Mmi) is a set of m distinct complex matrices. Let Wo be a bounded neighborhood of the origin. Define fork > 0, Wk =convexhull ~ Mk'Wk - I wherek'=(k- 1) mod m. Then A is stable if and only if V-U Q,_is bounded. W* is the norm of the first theorem. The constructive algorithm represents a convex set by its extreme points and uses linear programming to construct the successive W_k. Sufficient conditions for the finiteness of constructing W_k fromW_{k-1}, and for stopping the algorithm when either the set is proved stable or unstable are presented. A is generalized to be any convex set of matrices. A dynamical system of differential equations is stable if a corresponding set of matrices -- associated with the logarithmic norms of the matrices of the linearized equations -- is stable. The concept of the stability of a set of matrices is related to the existence of a matrix norm. Such a norm is an induced matrix norm if and only if the set of matrices is maximally stable (ie., it cannot be enlarged and remain stable).


SELECTED WORKSHOPS AND TUTORIALS
(as creator, chair, or presenter)

1994 Reasoning About the Shop Floor, SIGMAN Workshop, at the Twelfth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-94), Seattle, Washington, July 31-August 4, 1994. Co-chair (with Dr. Leslie Interrante [now Leslie Cumiford, Sandia National Laboratories]).
 Workshop on the Semantic Basis for Sharing of Knowledge and Data in Design. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne, Switzerland August 15-18, 1994. Member, International Advisory Committee.
1991Tutorial on AI in Engineering Design, co-presenter (with Dundee Navinchandra , Carnegie-Mellon University), at the Seventh IEEE Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications (CAIA-91).
   
  Program Chair, Science / Engineering Track (primary track of three program tracks) of the IEEE Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Applications (CAIA), Orlando, FL, 1991.
   
  Member of the Advisory Board for the First International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Design, Edinburgh, Scotland (June, 1991).
   
1990Program Chair, Engineering / Manufacturing Track (primary track of three program tracks) of the IEEE Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Applications (CAIA), Santa Barbara, CA, 1990. Also Chair of the Design and Planning program session.
   
  Tutorial on "Artificial Intelligence and Design", co-presenter (with Ram Duvurru Sriram, MIT), at the Eighth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-90).
   
  Member of the Advisory Board for the Fifth International Conference on Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Engineering, Boston, Massachusetts (July, 1990).
   
1989 Member of the Advisory Board for the Workshop on Creative Design, Great Barrier Reef, Australia (December, 1989).
   
1988

Tutorial on Artificial Intelligence and Design, co-presenter (with Lou Steinberg), at the Sixth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-88).

 
Lou Steinberg
 
Lou Steinberg
   
  Member of the Advisory Board for the Third International Conference on Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Engineering (August, 1988).
   
  Member of the Program Committee of the Workshop on AI in Design at the Sixth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-88). Chaired session on "Models of the Design Process" and presented an overview talk on that topic.
   
1987 Member of the Advisory Board for the Second International Conference on Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Engineering, MIT (August, 1987).
   
1986 Co-chair (with Ram Duvurru Sriram, MIT) of the Workshop on Artificial Intelligence and Design, at the Fourth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-86).
   
  Tutorial on Artificial Intelligence and Engineering Design, co-presenter (with Ram Duvurru Sriram), at the Eighth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-86).
   
  Session Chairman, 23rd ACM / IEEE Design Automation Conference, Las Vegas, Nevada (June 29 - July 2, 1986).


SELECTED EDITORSHIPS EDITORIAL BOARDS

1990

Guest editor (with Peter Hart) for IEEE Expert [now known as IEEE Intelligent Systems], special issue on AI Applications, Fall, 1990.

 
Peter Hart
 
Peter Hart
   
1987Guest editor of IJAIE (International Journal for Artificial Intelligence in Engineering), special issue on Engineering Design.
   
1986-1994Member of the editorial board for IJAIE ( International Journal for Artificial Intelligence in Engineering).



SELECTED RESEARCH GRANTS

1991-94 

"Knowledge Compilation: A Divide-and-Conquer Approach". National Science Foundation. Principal Investigator. $623,118.
Other investigators: Dr. Tom Ellman

 
Tom Ellman
 
Tom Ellman
 
1990-93

"AI and Design: Computer-Aided Productivity". DARPA / Nasa Ames Research Center. Investigator. $2,274,444.
Principal Investigator: Prof. Saul Amarel

 
Saul Amarel
 
Saul Amarel
   
1987-91 

"A Domain-Independent Model of Knowledge-Based Design". DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency), Co-proposer and Investigator. $2,765,715.
Other investigators: Prof. Lou Steinberg and Prof. Jack Mostow

 
Lou Steinberg, Chris Tong, and Jack Mostow
 
The Rutgers AI / VLSI Project (Lou Steinberg, Chris Tong, and Jack Mostow):
At the untamed frontier where Artificial Intelligence and human design meet
 
1986-90 

"A Domain-Independent Model of Knowledge-Based Design". National Science Foundation, Co-proposer and Investigator. $587,000.
Other investigators: Prof. Lou Steinberg and Prof. Jack Mostow

 
Jack Mostow
 
Jack Mostow
 
1984-86 "A Learning Apprentice for Knowledge Acquisition in an Expert System", DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency). Investigator. $517,693.
Other investigators: Prof. Tom Mitchell, Prof. Lou Steinberg, and Prof. Jack Mostow
 
1983-86 

"Artificial Intelligence Aids for VLSI Design". DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency). Investigator. $1,293,945.
Other investigators: Prof. Tom Mitchell, Prof. Lou Steinberg, and Prof. Jack Mostow

 
Tom Mitchell
 
Tom Mitchell


PH.D. STUDENTS

1996 

Sunil Mohan. Dissertation: Two Approaches to the Hierarchical Solution of Constraint Satisfaction Problems. dissertation
Dr. Mohan is currently working on automating mission scheduling for space-based observatories, in the Mission Operations Scheduling Project, at NASA Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, CA.

 
Sunil Mohan
 
Sunil Mohan and his wife
 
1995 

Kerstin Voigt. Dissertation: Automating Software Design for Resource Assignment Problems.

Dr. Voigt is currently an associate professor and the Graduate Coordinator for Admissions in the Department of Computer Science at California State University in San Bernadino. She is the head of the Intelligent Agents Research Group, and is a member of the Software Engineering Research Group.

 
Kerstin Voigt, Alan Newell, and Chris Tong
 
Kerstin Voigt, Chris Tong, and Nobel
Prize-winning researcher, Herb Simon
 
1992 

Wes Braudaway. Dissertation: Knowledge Compilation for Incorporating Constraints.

Dr. Braudaway is a staff member at SAIC (Science Applications International Corporation) in Orlando, Florida. He is the manager and chief scientist of the ADS Research Team (a joint effort by SAIC and The Asset Group), which conducts applied research and development in modeling and simulation.

 
Wes Braudaway
 
Wes Braudaway


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